B.A.LL.B. (Hons.) Semester-VI


This paper will orient the students with political history of World in 18th and 19th century. It will enable students to understand the economic transition in Europe during the 18th and 19th Centuries. It will also enable student to understand the concept of socialism and the formation of nation states and to understand the political alliances and world war. It is widely believed and perhaps rightly so that today's problems and solutions thereto lie hidden in History. Understanding history of the state, social institutions, people and the culture inherently makes one understand as to how to critically appreciate a fact-situation. The purpose of this course is to enable the student to study the history of 'Modern World' from an analytical perspective; to make the student aware of the multi-dimensionality of Modern World; to highlight the ideas, institutions, forces and movements that contributed to the shaping of modern world as we see today; to acquaint the student with various interpretative perspectives; to help them in articulating their own ideas and views.


There is one of the principles of economics which states that trade can make everyone better off. Here the term trade implies the exchange of goods and services. It may be between two individuals or the regions of the same country or it may be between two or more countries. As man cannot produce everything he wants he has to be dependent on the other individuals for satisfying his wants. In the ancient period in order to facilitate the trade barter system came into existence. But later on due to the changing needs of the society the concept of money evolved probable in the medieval period. This course will focus on the evolution of money from commodity money to the virtual currency. Financial intermediaries are the group of institution through which savers can indirectly provide funds to the borrowers. Banks are the important type of financial intermediaries. This course will be helpful to understand various types of banks including central bank and commercial banks. Public finance talks about the income and expenditure of the public authorities and various theories associated with them. The paper also deals with the nature of government intervention in the economy and its implications for allocation, distribution and stabilization. Inherently, this study involves a formal analysis of government taxation and expenditures. The subject encompasses a host of topics including public goods, market failures and externalities

CORPORATE LAW II (Capital Markets and Securities Law)

The Course on Capital Markets and Securities law is designed to the students of third year students of BA LLB with an emphasis for National Law universities and given practical importance in law firms and practice. The object of capital markets, regulators of capital and stock markets, various financial and economic institutions have been dealt in detail. Besides, SEBI, the market regulator, must deal sternly with companies and their directors indulging in manipulative and deceptive devices, insider trading etc. or else they will be failing in their duty to promote orderly and healthy growth of the Securities market. Economic offence, people of this country should know, is a serious crime which, if not properly dealt with, as it should be, will affect not only country's economic growth, but also slow the inflow of foreign investment by genuine investors and also casts a slur on India's securities market. Message should go that our country will not tolerate "market abuse" and that we are governed by the "Rule of Law". Fraud, deceit, artificiality, SEBI should ensure, have no place in the securities market of this country and 'market security' is our motto. People with power and money and in management of the companies, unfortunately often command more respect in our society than the subscribers and investors in their companies. Companies are thriving with investors' contributions but they are a divided lot. SEBI has, therefore, a duty to protect investors, individual and collective, against opportunistic behavior of Directors and Insiders of the listed companies so as to safeguard market's integrity

The Print and Electronic Media have also a solemn duty not to mislead the public, who are present and prospective investors, in their forecast on the securities market. of course, genuine, and honest opinion on market position of a company has to be welcomed. But a media projection on company's position in the security market with a view to derive a benefit from a position in the securities would amount to market abuse, creating artificiality. SEBI has the duty and obligation to protect ordinary genuine investors and the SEBI is empowered to do so under the SEBI Act to make security market a secure and safe place to carry on the business in securities


In every civilized legal system, we can classify the laws in two categories i.e. Substantive Law and Procedural laws. The Law of evidence is one of the most important parts of the procedural law. The Law of Evidence plays a very vital important role in the effective functioning of the judicial system. The law of evidence is an indispensable part of both substantive and procedural laws. It imparts credibility to the adjudicatory process by indicating the degree of veracity to be attributed to facts before the forum. This paper enables the student to appreciate the concepts and principles underlying the law of evidence and identify the recognized forms of evidence and its sources.

In India, the Law of Evidence is a very important part of both the system that is civil and criminal. The enactment of this act is known as the path-breaking judicial measure introduced in India which changed the entire system of Indian judiciary. The whole judicial system gets changed after the enactment of this Act because before there was no codified rule or set up rules and regulation for taking evidence. This Act is based on the English law of Evidence. It is not exhaustive in nature. One of the examples that it is not exhaustive in nature was in 2010, when Information Technology Act came into existence and Indian Evidence Act gets amended by giving legal status to the electronic documents, records and signatures. Further the course also touches the developments made through legislative and judicial process.


Administrative law is basically a study related to administration. One of the primary objective of the course is to introduce the students to the core understanding of Administrative Law, which is an important aspect of any democratic state. The course requires the students to study and analyse some of the basic principles of administrative law as well the landmark judgments that have helped in the development of Administrative Law in the country. The course would aim at inculcating in students a deeper understanding and appreciation of some of the grey areas of Administrative Law.

Administrative Law includes study related to power, function and structure of various organs of Administration and the limitations attached to the exercise of those powers and functions. However, it is difficult to define Administrative Law in exact terms as it includes various facets and depends on the social, political and economic set- up of a state. The role of state over a period of time has changed from laissez faire to welfare state. This expansion in the role of the State has given increased power to the administration to affect rights and liberties of the individual. Therefore, it has become important to control the administration in order to ensure that government functions are exercised according to law and protection is provided to individual against abuse of such power. There is thus, a need to maintain a balance with respect to exercise of power in case of public interest and private interest.


The labour movement has been instrumental in the enacting of laws protecting labour rights in the 19th and 20th centuries. Labour rights have been integral to the social and economic development since the industrial revolution. After the Independence the government of India has enacted numerous legislations for the regulation of labour relations and their welfare. Labour and Industrial law mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers, and employees. It defines the rights and obligations of workers, union members and employers in the work place. An understanding of Labour Laws is very essential for law students because the scope and ambit of these laws is very wide and is touching the lives of millions of people in the country.